This is the History of our Ancestors
Mahaprabu Niskala Wastukencana was born in 1348 and passed away in the year 1475 in Kawali, Ciamis. Niskala Wastu Kancana was the Ruler from the Unified Kingdom of Sunda Galuh in which he ruled from 1371 to 1471CE.
Mahaprabu Niskala Wastukencana was also known as Rakean Pitara. He was the son of Sang Maha Prabu Wangi/Prabu Lingga Buana Wisesa (Raja Galuh/King of Galuh) conceived from the marriage to Dewi Lara Lisning. Mahaprabu Niskala Wastukencana was also the brother of Putri Citraresmi Dhiahpitaloka who died in the Palagan Bubat War in 1357 CE (War between Padjajaran/Sunda and Majapahit).
When his parents died, he was taken in under the care of his uncle – Prabu Bunisora Soeryadipati – the younger brother of Prabu Linggabuana Wisesa. He was 14 when the Bubat War started. Mahaprabu Niskala Wastu Kancana was taught and guided by his uncle, Sang Bunisora, in areas of spirituality and statehood.
He grew up to be wise and well-liked by his people. Sang Bunisora, his uncle, was well known for his wisdom and steadfastness in terms of his spiritual beliefs (Sunda Wiwitan). He was eventually conferred the title hood – Rajaresi -author of Carita Parahyangan attaining the title of Satmata. It is the 5th of 7 levels of spirituality of beliefs practised by the Kings of Sundanese Kingdom at that time.
Synopsis of Carita Parahyanjgan
In reference to the book ‘Kropak 630’ the levels of spirituality of humans in the spiritual practice of Sunda Wiwitan are: Acara, Adigama, Gurugama, Tuhagama, Satmata, Suraloka, and Nirawerah. Satmata is the 5th level, which is the highest for a person to attain while still being involved in worldly affairs. After reaching the 6th level (Suraloka), the individual would be in the process of letting go of worldly desires. At the 7th level (Nirawerah), the individual’s unfulfilled desires and Nafs are nullified and the remaining portion of his life would be to achieve oneness with the essence of Sang Hiyang Batara Tunggal/God.
Prabu Niskala Wastu Kancana was sworn in as King after Prabu Bunisora at the age of 23 in the year 1371 CE, under the title of Mahaprabu Niskala Wastu Kancana alias Praburesi Buana Tunggadewata. With reference to the earliest historical records, he was also known as Prabu Linggawastu – son of Prabu Linggahiyang.
Subsequently, he was sworn in as the King of the Unified Kingdom of Sunda Galuh. His wife, the Queen of Sunda Galuh (Nyai Ratu Maya Sari), bore him 4 sons. They are as follows:
- Prabu Susuk Tunggal alias Sang Sangga Wareling. He became King of Sunda/ Raja Sunda after the rule of Hyang Mahaprabu Wastukencana.
- Prabu Jayaningrat Alias Dewa Niskala (Sang Sida moksa Ring Guna Tiga) the father of Prabu Siliwangi.
- Sunan Rumenggong alias Rakeyan Layaran Wangi / Sang Kidang Pananjung. (Rama and Mahapatih Galuh).
- Ki Gedeng Tapa alias Ki Gedeng Singapura alias Gelap Nywang/Prabu Parameswara. (Refer to historical analysis of Sri Vijaya Kingdom and Alliance of Statehood with Padjajaran to counter the colonialisation of Nusa Antara by Majapahit).
The above genealogy is the embryo of the Kingdom of Padjajaran. It chronologically dates back to the rule of Hyang Prabu Susuk Tunggal as King/Raja Sunda, and the rule of Hyang Prabu Dewa Niskala as King/Raja Galuh. This was followed by the birth of Sanghyang Prabu Jayadewata alias Prabu Pamanah Rasa/Prabu Siliwangi.
The Kingdoms of Sunda and Galuh were unified again and proceeded to change its name to Kingdom of/ Kerajaan Pakuan Padjajaran with its centre of governance in the state of Pakuan Bogor. It was ruled by Prabu Siliwangi under the titlehood of ” Sribaduga Maharaja Ratu Aji Di Pakuan Padjajaran ” as the founder and King of the Kingdom/kerajaan Pakuan Padjajaran (1482-1579 CE).
Padjajaran Kingdom ended its reign during the period of Prabu Siliwangi’s great grandson, Prabu Sedawangi Kandagan Aji Mulya alias Sang Nusya Mulya Raga Mulya. He ruled as Suryakencana Seora.
Ki Gedeng Singapura alias Parameswara is the son of Sang Mahaprabu Wastukencana.
Ki Gedeng Singapura/Parameswara had a daughter – Nyai Ratu Subanglarang. She was married off to Hyang Prabu Siliwangi. Singapura became an autonomus state of Padjajaran due to this marriage. During his rule, in order to ensure that the bloodline remained pure, Prabu Siliwangi married only queens and family members genetically linked to past rulers descended from the lineage of Sunda and Galuh. This was a political strategy adopted by Prabu Siliwangi in order to prevent his Kingdom from falling into enemy hands.
Prabu Siliwangi’s marriage to Nyai Ratu Subanglarang enabled the Kingdom of Padjajaran to counter the attack from an invading Majapahit army that was bent on colonialising Nusa Antara territories. The Majapahit army invaded Singapura, which had attained autonomy after the marriage the afore-mentioned marriage. Prabu Siliwangi and Nyai Ratu Subanglarang had a son – Rakeyan Santang Alias Prabu Chakra Bhuana. He was the Founder and ruler of Negara Caruban Nagari (Cirebon).
Ki Gedeng Singapura alias Parameswara was the uncle of Sang Prabu Siliwangi. He was Prabu Siliwangi’s mahaguru in the subject of spirituality. Ki Gedeng Singapura was also known as Ki Gedeng Tapa.